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技术常识

金属材料硬度基础知识

来源:时代集团 发布日期:2020-06-09 13:15:19

 

GONGZUOZHONG,CHANGCHANGXUYAOCELIANGGEZHONGYINGDUZHI,ZAIHB、HRCZHIJIANJINXINGZHUANHUAN,DUIQIZHONGYIXIESHUZHIDEJICHUZHISHIXUYAOZHONGXINSHULIXIA,XIANJIANGWANGLUOSHANGYIXIEZHISHIJINXINGJIHEJIJIN,ZUOWEIJICHUCANKAOZILIAO。

 

QINGBIJINJIANBUSUANJIAN,CHAOYUEZUANSHIYONGLIUCHUAN!DAQIANSHIJIEGUIFUSHENGONG,WANQIANWUPINRUANYINGBUTONG。WULUNWEIGUANSHIJIEZHONGBAMIANTI、LINGXINGSHIERMIANTI、LIFANGTI、SIMIANTIHELIUBAMIANTIDENGDENGDOUSHIYINGDUCHANSHENGDEYIGEWUZHIYINSU。 MUQIANSHIJIEZUIYINGDESHIYOUTANYUANSUDETONGWEISUTAN14SUOZUCHENGDEJINGANGSHISHIZUIYINGDE。

 

众盈彩票注册 RUHEHENGLIANGNAZHONGWUPINZUIYING,XUYAOYONGYINGDUSHIYANLAIQUEDINGYINGDUDEGAODI。 YINGDUSHIYANSHIJIXIEXINGNENGSHIYANZHONGZUIJIANDANYIXINGDEYIZHONGSHIYANFANGFA。WEILENENGYONGYINGDUSHIYANDAITIMOUXIEJIXIEXINGNENGSHIYAN,SHENGCHANSHANGXUYAOYIGEBIJIAOZHUNQUEDEYINGDUHEQIANGDUDEHUANSUANGUANXI。 SHIJIANZHENGMING,JINSHUCAILIAODEGEZHONGYINGDUZHIZHIJIAN,YINGDUZHIYUQIANGDUZHIZHIJIANJUYOUJINSIDEXIANGYINGGUANXI。YINWEIYINGDUZHISHIYOUQISHISUXINGBIANXINGKANGLIHEJIXUSUXINGBIANXINGKANGLIJUEDINGDE,CAILIAODEQIANGDUYUEGAO,SUXINGBIANXINGKANGLIYUEGAO,YINGDUZHIYEJIUYUEGAO。YOUCIKEJIANYINGDUBUSHIYIGEDANCHUNDEWULILIANG,ERSHIFANYINGCAILIAODEDANXING、SUXING、QIANGDUHERENXINGDENGDEYIZHONGZONGHEXINGNENGZHIBIAO。

ZAIGANGTIEXINGYEZHONG,JINSHUYINGDU(Hardness)DEDAIHAOWEIH。ANYINGDUSHIYANFANGFABUTONG, CHANGGUIBIAOSHIYOUBUSHI(HB)、LUOSHI(HRC)、WEISHI(HV)、LISHI(HL)YINGDUDENG,QIZHONGYIHBJIHRCJIAOWEICHANGYONG。BUSHIYINGDU(HB)、LUOSHIYINGDU(HRA,HRB,HRC)、WEISHIYINGDU(HV),QIZHIBIAOSHICAILIAOBIAOMIANDIKANGJIANYINGWUTIYARUDENENGLI。ERLISHIYINGDU(HL)、XIAOSHIYINGDU(HS)ZESHUYUHUITIAOFAYINGDUSHIYAN,QIZHIDAIBIAOJINSHUDANXINGBIANXINGGONGDEDAXIAO。

 

1.洛氏硬度

 

 LUOSHIYINGDU(Rockwellhardness),ZHEISHIYOULUOKEWEIER(S.P.Rockwell)ZAI1921NIANTICHULAIDE,SHISHIYONGLUOSHIYINGDUJISUOCEDINGDEJINSHUCAILIAODEYINGDUZHI。GAIZHIMEIYOUDANWEI,ZHIYONGDAIHAO“HR”BIAOSHI,QICELIANGFANGFASHI,ZAIGUIDINGDEWAIJIAZAIHEXIA,JIANGGANGQIUHUOJINGANGSHIYATOUCHUIZHIYARUDAISHICAILIAODEBIAOMIAN,CHANSHENGAOHEN,GENJUZAIHEJIECHUHOUDEAOHENSHENDU,LIYONGLUOSHIYINGDUJISUANGONGSHIHR=(K-H)/CBIANKEYIJISUANCHULUOSHIYINGDU。LUOSHIYINGDUZHIXIANSHIZAIYINGDUJIDEBIAOPANSHANG,KEYIZHIJIEDUQU。LUOSHIYINGDUSHIYIYAHENSUXINGBIANXINGSHENDULAIQUEDINGYINGDUZHIZHIBIAO。YI0.002HAOMIZUOWEIYIGEYINGDUDANWEI。DANGHB>450HUOZHESHIYANGGUOXIAOSHI,BUNENGCAIYONGBUSHIYINGDUSHIYANERGAIYONGLUOSHIYINGDUJILIANG。TASHIYONGYIGEDINGJIAO120°DEJINGANGSHIYUANZHUITIHUOZHIJINGWEI1.59、3.18mmDEGANGQIU,ZAIYIDINGZAIHEXIAYARUBEICECAILIAOBIAOMIAN,YOUYAHENDESHENDUQIUCHUCAILIAODEYINGDU。GENJUSHIYANCAILIAOYINGDUDEBUTONG,FENSANZHONGBUTONGDEBIAODULAIBIAOSHI:

 

众盈彩票注册HRA:SHICAIYONG60kgZAIHEHEZUANSHIZHUIYARUQIQIUDEDEYINGDU,YONGYUYINGDUJIGAODECAILIAO(RUYINGZHIHEJINDENG)。

 

众盈彩票注册HRB:SHICAIYONG100kgZAIHEHEZHIJING1.58mmCUIYINGDEGANGQIU,QIUDEDEYINGDU,YONGYUYINGDUJIAODIDECAILIAO(RUTUIHUOGANG、ZHUTIEDENG)。

 

HRC:SHICAIYONG150kgZAIHEHEZUANSHIZHUIYARUQIQIUDEDEYINGDU,YONGYUYINGDUHENGAODECAILIAO(RUCUIHUOGANGDENG)。

 

2.布氏硬度

 

众盈彩票注册BUSHIYINGDU(HB)YIBANYONGYUCAILIAOJIAORUANDESHIHOU,RUYOUSEJINSHU、RECHULIZHIQIANHUOTUIHUOHOUDEGANGTIE。LUOSHIYINGDU(HRC)YIBANYONGYUYINGDUJIAOGAODECAILIAO,RURECHULIHOUDEYINGDUDENGDENG。

众盈彩票注册BUSHIYINGDU(HB)SHIYIYIDINGDAXIAODESHIYANZAIHE,JIANGYIDINGZHIJINGDECUIYINGGANGQIUHUOYINGZHIHEJINQIUYARUBEICEJINSHUBIAOMIAN,BAOCHIGUIDINGSHIJIAN,RANHOUXIEHE,CELIANGBEICEBIAOMIANYAHENZHIJING。BUSHIYINGDUZHISHIZAIHECHUYIYAHENQIUXINGBIAOMIANJISUODEDESHANG。YIBANWEI:YIYIDINGDEZAIHEJIANGYIDINGDAXIAODECUIYINGGANGQIUYARUCAILIAOBIAOMIAN,BAOCHIYIDUANSHIJIAN,QUZAIHOU,FUHEYUQIYAHENMIANJIZHIBIZHI,JIWEIBUSHIYINGDUZHI(HB),DANWEIWEIGONGJINLI/mm2 (N/mm2)。CESHIZAIHEYUCESHIGANGQIUDEZHIJINGXUGENJUCAILIAODESHIJIXINGNENGZAIQUEDING。

 

3.维氏硬度


WEISHIYINGDUSHIYANFANGFASHIYINGGUOSHIMISI(R.L.Smith)HESAIDELANDE(C.E.Sandland)YU1925NIANTICHUDE。YINGGUODEWEIKESI—AMUSITELANG(Vickers-Armstrong)GONGSISHIZHILEDIYITAIYICIFANGFAJINXINGSHIYANDEYINGDUJI。HEBUSHI、LUOSHIYINGDUSHIYANXIANGBI,WEISHIYINGDUSHIYANCELIANGFANWEIJIAOKUAN,CONGJIAORUANCAILIAODAOCHAOYINGCAILIAO,JIHUHANGAIGEZHONGCAILIAO。

 

4.里氏硬度

 

众盈彩票注册LISHIYINGDUSHIYIHLBIAOSHI,LISHIYINGDUCESHIJISHUSHIYOURUISHIDIERMA,LIBOBOSHIFAMINGDE,TASHIYONGYIDINGZHILIANGDEZHUANGYOUTANHUAWUQIUTOUDECHONGJITI,ZAIYIDINGLIDEZUOYONGXIACHONGJISHIJIANBIAOMIAN,RANHOUFANDAN。YOUYUCAILIAOYINGDUBUTONG,ZHUANGJIHOUDEFANDANSUDUYEBUTONG。ZAICHONGJIZHUANGZHISHANGANZHUANGYOUYONGCICAILIAO,DANGCHONGJITISHANGXIAYUNDONGSHI,QIWAIWEIXIANQUANBIANGANYINGCHUYUSUDUCHENGZHENGBIDEDIANCIXINHAO,ZAITONGGUODIANZIXIANLUZHUANHUANCHENGLISHIYINGDUZHI。

 

5.肖氏硬度

 

JIANCHENGHS。BIAOSHICAILIAOYINGDUDEYIZHONGBIAOZHUN。YOUYINGGUORENXIAOER(Albert F.Shore)SHOUXIANTICHU。

众盈彩票注册YINGYONGDANXINGHUITIAOFAJIANGZHUANGXIAOCONGYIDINGGAODULUODAOSUOSHICAILIAODEBIAOMIANSHANGERFASHENGHUITIAO。ZHUANGXIAOSHIYIZHIJUYOUJIANDUANDEXIAOZHUI,JIANDUANSHANGCHANGXIANGYOUJINGANGZUAN。CESHISHUZHIWEI1000xZHUANGXIAOFANHUISUDU/ZHUANGXIAOCHUSHISUDU(JIWEIPENGZHUANGQIANHOUDESUDUBICHENGYI1000)

 

6.巴氏硬度

 

BAKEER(Barcol)YINGDU(JIANCHENGBASHIYINGDU), ZUIZAOYOUMEIGUO Barber-ColmanGONGSITICHU,SHIJINDAIGUOJISHANGGUANGFANCAIYONGDEYIZHONGYINGDUMENLEI, YIDINGXINGZHUANGDEYINGGANGYAZHEN,ZAIBIAOZHUNDANHUANGSHIYANLIZUOYONGXIA,YARUSHIYANGBIAOMIAN,YONGYAZHENDEYARUSHENDUQUEDINGCAILIAOYINGDU,DINGYIMEIYARU0.0076mmWEIYIGEBASHIYINGDUDANWEI。BASHIYINGDUDANWEIBIAOSHIWEIHBa。

 

7.努氏硬度

 

NUSHIYINGDUSHIZUOWEIJUEDUISHUZHIERCEDEDEYINGDU,ZHUYAOZAIJIAGONGFANGMIANSHIYONGGAISHUZHI。YIBANLAISHUO,JINGANGSHIDENUSHIYINGDUWEI7000~8000QIANKE/PINGFANGHAOMI

 

8.韦氏硬度

 

YIDINGXINGZHUANGDEYINGGANGYAZHEN,ZAIBIAOZHUNDANHUANGSHIYANLIZUOYONGXIAYARUSHIYANGBIAOMIAN,YONGYAZHENDEYARUSHENDUQUEDINGCAILIAOYINGDU,DINGYI0.01mmDEYARUSHENDUWEIYIGEWEISHIYINGDUDANWEI。WEISHIYINGDUDANWEIBIAOSHIWEIHW。

 

 

 

SANZHONGCESHIFANGFADEYINGYONGFANWEI:

 

HRCHANYISHILUOSHIYINGDUCBIAOCHI,HRCHEHBZAISHENGCHANZHONGDEYINGYONGDOUHENGUANGFANHRCSHIYONGFANWEIHRC 20--67,XIANGDANGYUHB225--650,RUOYINGDUGAOYUCIFANWEIZEYONGLUOSHIYINGDUABIAOCHIHRA,RUOYINGDUDIYUCIFANWEIZEYONGLUOSHIYINGDUBBIAOCHIHRB。BUSHIYINGDUSHANGXIANZHIHB650,BUNENGGAOYUCIZHI,ZAIYIDINGTIAOJIANXIA,HBYUHRCKEYICHABIAOHUHUAN。

 

LUOSHIYINGDU:GONGYESHENGCHANZHONGZUICHANGYONG,SHIYONGYUYINGDUJIAOGAODEJINSHUCAILIAO,RUCUIHUOGANGJIDIAOZHIGANG ;LUOSHIYINGDUSHIYANCAIYONGSANZHONGSHIYANLI,SANZHONGYATOU,TAMENGONGYOU9ZHONGZUHE,DUIYINGYULUOSHIYINGDUDE9GEBIAOCHI。ZHEI9GEBIAOCHIDEYINGYONGHANGAILEJIHUSUOYOUCHANGYONGDEJINSHUCAILIAO。LUOSHIYINGDUMEIYOUDANWEI,SHIYIGEWUGANGLIANGDELIXUEXINGNENGZHIBIAO,QIZUICHANGYONGDEYINGDUBIAOCHIYOUA、B、CSANZHONG,TONGCHANGJIZUOHRA、HRB、HRC,QIBIAOSHIFANGFAWEIYINGDUSHUJU+YINGDUFUHAO,RU40HRC。

WEISHIYINGDU:YOUYUSHIYANSHIJIAZAIDEYALIXIAO,YARUSHENDUQIAN,DUIGONGJIANSUNSHANGXIAO。TEBIESHIYONGYUCELIANGLINGJIANDEBIAOMIANCUIYINGCENGJIJINGGUOBIAOMIANHUAXUECHULIDEYINGDU,JINGDUBIBUSHI、LUOSHIYINGDUJINGQUE。DANSHIWEISHIYINGDUDESHIYANCAOZUOJIAOMAFAN,YIBANZAISHENGCHANSHANGHENSHAOSHIYONG,DUOYONGYUSHIYANSHIJIKEYANFANGMIAN。BIRUSHENTAN、SHENDAN、TANDANGONGSHEN、DIANDUCENGDENGDEYINGDU。

 

BUSHIYINGDU:YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,YINGDUDIDEXIGUANYUYONGBUSHIYINGDU,BIRUJINXINGTUIHUO、ZHENGHUO、YAZHIHOUKONGLENG、CUIHUO+GAOWENHUIHUODENGGANGCAI。

 

 

 

WEISHIZHUANHUANCHENGLUOSHIDEGONGSHIHRC=100-37353/(HV+200)

众盈彩票注册1.XIAOSHIYINGDU(HS)=BOSHIYINGDU(BHN)/10+12

众盈彩票注册2.XIAOSHIYINGDU(HS)=LUOSHIYINGDU(HRC)+15

众盈彩票注册3.BOSHIYINGDU(BHN)= LUOKESHIYINGDU(H)

众盈彩票注册4.LUOSHIYINGDU(HRC)= BOSHIYINGDU(BHN)/10-3

 

(LAIYUAN:WANGLUO)

 

 

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